- South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands
Introduction ::South Georgia and South Sandwich IslandsBackground:The islands, which have large bird and seal populations, lie approximately 1,000 km east of the Falkland Islands and have been under British administration since 1908 - except for a brief period in 1982 when Argentina occupied them. Grytviken, on South Georgia, was a 19th and early 20th century whaling station. Famed explorer Ernest SHACKLETON stopped there in 1914 en route to his ill-fated attempt to cross Antarctica on foot. He returned some 20 months later with a few companions in a small boat and arranged a successful rescue for the rest of his crew, stranded off the Antarctic Peninsula. He died in 1922 on a subsequent expedition and is buried in Grytviken. Today, the station houses scientists from the British Antarctic Survey. Recognizing the importance of preserving the marine stocks in adjacent waters, the UK, in 1993, extended the exclusive fishing zone from 12 nm to 200 nm around each island.Geography ::South Georgia and South Sandwich IslandsLocation:Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of the tip of South AmericaGeographic coordinates:54 30 S, 37 00 WArea:total: 3,903 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 177land: 3,903 sq kmwater: 0 sq kmnote: includes Shag Rocks, Black Rock, Clerke Rocks, South Georgia Island, Bird Island, and the South Sandwich Islands, which consist of 11 islandsArea - comparative:slightly larger than Rhode IslandLand boundaries:0 kmCoastline:NAMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmexclusive fishing zone: 200 nmClimate:variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snowTerrain:most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active volcanoesElevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 mhighest point: Mount Paget (South Georgia) 2,934 mNatural resources:fishLand use:arable land: 0%permanent crops: 0%other: 100% (largely covered by permanent ice and snow with some sparse vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen) (2011)Irrigated land:0 sq km (2011)Natural hazards:the South Sandwich Islands have prevailing weather conditions that generally make them difficult to approach by ship; they are also subject to active volcanismEnvironment - current issues:NAGeography - note:the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which provide good anchorage; reindeer, introduced early in the 20th century, live on South GeorgiaPeople and Society ::South Georgia and South Sandwich IslandsPopulation:no indigenous inhabitantsnote: the small military garrison on South Georgia withdrew in March 2001 replaced by a permanent group of scientists of the British Antarctic Survey, which also has a biological station on Bird Island; the South Sandwich Islands are uninhabitedGovernment ::South Georgia and South Sandwich IslandsCountry name:conventional long form: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islandsconventional short form: South Georgia and South Sandwich Islandsabbreviation: SGSSIDependency status:overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina; administered from the Falkland Islands by a commissioner, who is concurrently governor of the Falkland Islands, representing Queen ELIZABETH IILegal system:the laws of the UK where applicable apply; the senior magistrate from the Falkland Islands presides over the Magistrates CourtDiplomatic representation in the US:none (overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina)Diplomatic representation from the US:none (overseas territory of the UK, also claimed by Argentina)Flag description:blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms features a shield with a golden lion rampant, holding a torch; the shield is supported by a fur seal on the left and a Macaroni penguin on the right; a reindeer appears above the crest, and below the shield on a scroll is the motto LEO TERRAM PROPRIAM PROTEGAT (Let the Lion Protect its Own Land)); the lion with the torch represents the UK and discovery; the background of the shield, blue and white estoiles, are found in the coat of arms of James Cook, discoverer of the islands; all the outer supporting animals represented are native to the islandsEconomy ::South Georgia and South Sandwich IslandsEconomy - overview:Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a potential source of income from harvesting finfish and krill. The islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK, sale of fishing licenses, and harbor and landing fees from tourist vessels. Tourism from specialized cruise ships is increasing rapidly.Transportation ::South Georgia and South Sandwich IslandsPorts and terminals:GrytvikenMilitary ::South Georgia and South Sandwich IslandsMilitary - note:defense is the responsibility of the UKTransnational Issues ::South Georgia and South Sandwich IslandsDisputes - international:Argentina, which claims the islands in its constitution and briefly occupied them by force in 1982, agreed in 1995 to no longer seek settlement by force"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands — South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands … Wikipedia
South Georgia And The South Sandwich Islands — Introduction South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Background: The islands lie approximately 1,000 km east of the Falkland Islands and have been under British administration since 1908 except for a brief period in 1982 when Argentina… … Universalium
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands — (engl.) Südgeorgien und die Südlichen Sandwichinseln … Deutsch Wikipedia
South Sandwich Islands — ▪ islands, Atlantic Ocean group of actively volcanic islets in the South Atlantic Ocean, north of the Weddell Sea and 470 miles (760 km) southeast of the island of South Georgia. They extend for 190 miles (305 km), occupy 120 square miles… … Universalium
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands — n. islands in the South Atlantic Ocean that are a dependent territory of the UK … English contemporary dictionary
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands — noun A British owned territory of inhospitable islands in the southern Atlantic Ocean … Wiktionary
History of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands — The history of the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is relatively recent. When European explorers found the islands, they were uninhabited, and their hostile climate, mountainous terrain, and remoteness made subsequent settlement… … Wikipedia
Sovereignty of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands — The sovereignty of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is disputed between the United Kingdom and Argentina. The United Kingdom exercises de facto control, and has done so since the islands were annexed by that country in 1908,… … Wikipedia
Commissioner for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands — Flag of the Commissioner for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, 1999 present … Wikipedia
Coat of arms of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands — The coat of arms of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands was granted in 1985, upon the creation of the territory. Prior to 1985, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands were a dependency of the Falkland Islands, and used their coat… … Wikipedia